In this section we will answer some of the recurring questions that clinicians ask about our biomaterials and membranes. The questions cite, by numbers, various bibliographic references that you can find on this page of our site.

Bone substitutes

1. Do you have literature on your materials?

Articles 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 and 62 Prof. Antonio Scarano/Uni Chieti-Pescara; Doc. Ludovichetti/Pd

  • n. 49 Scarano report of 4 cases on sinus lift with histologies using RE-BONE and shows that the material can be successfully used in breast lift and 6 months are considered an adequate timing to place implants.
  • n. 50 Scarano; study of rabbits using UBGEN ACTIGEN coated implants. Type I collagen coating is a promising procedure that can improve osteointegration especially in sites of poor bone quality.
  • n. 51 Scarano, study on 3 groups of patients was used RE-BONE with platelet concentrate, RE-BONE with patient’s blood, RE-BONE and physiological. 60 samples were analyzed, 20 per group for mechanical tests and histologies. The results show statistical evidence of deformation resistance in the RE-BONE AND PLATELET CONCENTRATE group of 875%. The RE-BONE and PLATELET CONCENTRATE protocol has been able to increase the mechanical properties of the graft and improve its clinical use in the treatment of bone defects of the maxillary.
  • n. 52 Scarano; study of a new design of the flap for breast lift on a group of 15 patients was opened a classic trapezoidal flap and the test group a new modified triangular flap without anterior release, to see if it reduced pain and swelling in patients. In both groups RE-BONE was used as a filler. The conclusion is that the new type of flap is preferable.
  • n. 53 Scarano; case reports using a RE-BONE block on 1 patient to reconstruct the volume of the alveolar saddle and be able to place an implant. The block was used in combination with UBGEN’s APG (platelet concentrate). The blockage is described as being able to maintain the stability of the clot and conducive to new bone formation. The gained bone volume remained so after the healing period of 6 months and there was no loss in height of the graft. In this type of technique (Interpositional Inlay Bone) the block is not fixed so the stability of the graft is essential.
  • n. 54 Scarano; soft tissue study on rats with calcium beta triphosphate from Skin-Hyxa Italfarmacia, Rome used with APG Ubgen (platelet concentrate) to demonstrate the alternative to hyaluronic acid which is normally used in oral surgery.
2. Does your product reabsorbe/remodel faster?

Articles 1, 7, 8 and 51 (51 is on RE-BONE/Prof. Scarano)

Any biomaterial, ours included, naturally follows bone biology in reabsorbing and remodeling. The reabsorption times are around 6 months (No. 51 of Prof. Scarano RE-BONE head) and for remodeling at least one year (n.1 Albrektson; n.7 Bedini). For the production we have followed the literature that has already shown what characteristics should have a good biomaterial (n. 8. Bedini, pag. 12).
3. Is your material osteoinductive?

Articoli n. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 13, 30, 42 e 43

RE-BONE is a graft that creates a scaffold within which bone cells and blood vessels can repopulate the matrix, reabsorb it and shape it into new bone. RE-BONE is obstetric conductive.

The literature on this subject gives the following information

  • n. 1 Albrektson: compares the concepts of osteoinduction, osteoconduction and osteointegration, related to each other and related to bone healing
  • n. 2 Badylack: explains all the structural and functional components of an extracellular matrix. There are well over 100,000 humans who have received a repair of their tissues with an extra cellular matrix of animal origin.
  • n. 3 Badylack the immunological response of some biological scaffolds
  • n. 4 Badylack highlights the composition and structure of some scaffolds, preparation methods and their in vivo mechanical behavior and remodeling
  • n. 5 Badylack, the methods of decellularization and recellularization of three-dimensional matrices
  • Covani, a very didactic compendium on the biology of bone, the three components of tissue regeneration (scaffold, cells and signals that are the growth factors of blood or bone), the healing of bone and all the GBR, really didactic.
  • n. 30 Kanczler explains the role of angiogenesis in the development of bone, with a nice second page drawing very understandable of the steps of bone reconstruction and the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and concludes that a biocompatible matrix for bone reconstruction can work if it has the ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis.
  • n. 42 Roach on bone biology and bone markers (i.e. the proteins of which the bone is composed)
  • n. 43 Robey, study of bone matrix proteins, structure and function.
4. I use a synthetic filler, it costs little and not trouble

Articles 7, 9, 19, 22, 26 and 59

In literature it is demonstrated (n. 7 Bedini; n. 19 Fernandez) that if a material is not sufficiently porous to allow the regrowth of bone and vessels there can be no regeneration and this applies both to synthetic ceramics and to the bovine bone processed at high temperature as the Bio-Geistlich Oss or Botiss-Straumann Cerabo. (No. 9 Bedini).

Literature on materials suitable for bone regeneration includes:

  • n. 22 Gardin (an important biology study that states that a biomaterial has to be nanostructured and mimic human bone. We affirm it for RE-BONE and it is reported in the catalogue)
  • n. 26 Ghanaati tested in vivo the tissue reaction of 3 bone replacements (tricalcium beta phosphate, hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium-phosphate ceramics). All with the same particle size, shape and porosity, but different in chemical composition. After implantation in the rat inflammation was checked before and after grafting for 30 days and it was seen with histologies that in the group beta tricalcium phosphate rapidly penetrated the connective tissue and with a rapid vascularization, while the ceramic and biphasic group showed slower degradation. In conclusion, the HA and TCP mix can be useful to generate a scaffold with rapid vascularization and relatively slow degradation. Both of these factors are necessary for successful bone regeneration. Prof. Ghanaati is a famous pathologist at the University of Mainz/Germany; The study of 2012 paved the way for the testing of materials that don’t reabsorb as quickly as current synthetics do.
  • n. 59 Tadic: analysis of 14 fillers (trade name table on p. 993 of which also indicates mechanical stability) and samples compared to HA (hydroxyapatite) synthetic and autologous bone. The materials are very different from each other and can be chosen for use depending on the morphology and degree of resorption.
5. Do you have any documentation on the safety of bovine bone grafts?

Articles 2, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 19, 22 and 23

The literature on graft safety includes:
  • n. 2 Badylack: explains all the structural and functional components of an extracellular matrix
  • n. 8 Bedini, in vitro study carried out in order to identify the structural and morphometric characteristics of biomaterials in oral surgery, including periodontal treatments.
  • n. 9 Bedini, in vitro study on the evolution of biomaterials in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Examples of biomaterials and tests to evaluate characterization and performance. Framework on the legislation that determines its performance and safety according to European legislation.
  • n. 11 Chappard study on animals; lipids influence its biocompatibility; compares two cattle blocks, one of which is more highly purified and delipidated than the other. The cleaner one has retained more than twice the amount of water. Therefore, the wettability in vitro demonstrates an important property: the rapidity for fluids and blood cells to arrive in the graft carrying bone cells. It has been seen that, after having implanted the blocks in the rabbit spongiosa, the cleaner one was more osteoconductive. This allows a new bone trabeculation at 6 months. To support and confirm the cleaning method identified by Ubgen, where lipids are carefully eliminated.
  • n. 14 Crapo, biomaterial cleaning methods. An overview of decellularization methods, their effect on the structure and composition of scaffolds and cleaning techniques. It concludes by saying that the better the cleaning process is, the better the biomaterial resulting from it. A very detailed article on the methods and related products to ensure the almost total safety of a cleaning process, Ubgen has taken into account for its production.
  • n. 16 Da Cruz, comparative in vitro study between Dembone/human and Bioss. Analysis by SEM (electron microscope) has shown that the materials examined have irregular shape and particle sizes larger than those declared by the manufacturer. Bioss has been shown not to be porous (p. 131 fig. A)
  • n. 18 Desiato, (Ist. Zooprofilattico Teramo, Dip. Virology) on BSE risk. The application of effective measures has led to a drastic reduction in the presence of BSE disease in Italy. Cattle are at risk from the age of 48 months. Ubgen uses cattle no later than 24 months, cleaning at low temperature. Risk minimized to the maximum. The competitors, in order to avoid the BSE risk caused by the use of animals over 48 months, have to use high temperature. As a result they have the product’s ceramization and loss of porosity necessary to reabsorb and remodel the graft.
  • n. 19 Fernandez de Grado, review of bone replacements. Nowadays, many bone substitutes are derived from biological products such as the demineralized bone matrix (DBM), platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite or synthetics such as calcium sulphate or tri-calcium phosphate, bioactive glasses or polymer-based substitutes. All these substitutes have to be selected depending on their use. This review highlights the main features of the most commonly used bone substitutes, gives information on their clinical use, such as vertebral column fusion, tibial osteotomy, surgery.
  • n. 22 Gardin (an important biology study which states that a biomaterial has to be nanostructured and mimic human bone. We affirm it for RE-BONE and it is reported in the catalogue)
  • n. 23 Gardin/Bressan, procedures on decellularization and delipidation of bovine bone and bovine pericardium. Ubgen took that into account for his production.
6. I use little fillers, the autologous bone is the gold standard...

Articles 8, 17, 25, 31, 32 and 33

  • n. 8 Bedini, tests in vitro biomaterials of different origin and composition and currently present on the market: homologous bone, equine spongiosa, bovine spongiosa, hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate. On page 12 we report the characteristics that a good biomaterial should have. The page can be used in our favor because it reports the characteristics that RE-BONE already has.
  • n. 17 Danesh demonstrates the clinical disadvantages of autologous bone; 136 out of 791 studies evaluated were taken into account for the necessary meta-analysis and concludes that bovine bone substitutes, bank humans, synthetics are a good alternative to autologous and can be considered as substitutes to avoid the disadvantages of autologous harvesting. The author works at the NY Univ. Department of Periodontology, an authoritative researcher.
  • n. 25 Gazdag shows that only autologous is both obstetrical and inductive and obstetrical and that there is no alternative material that has all three of these factors. Nevertheless, for harvesting, usage and complications disadvantages, alternative composites can be used in compromised bone sites to maximize healing.
  • n. 31 Khan: the alternatives to autologous bone exist and can be used depending on the defect, the type of material and the quality of the bone.
  • n. 32 Laino: Compares autologous removal from the chin and block bovine bone +pericardium Puros/Zimmer to vertically increase atrophic posterior mandibles. Histologies show that there were statistically no substantial differences in the percentage of neoformed bone between the two materials, but the use of heterologous bone is less invasive than the removal from mentonier symphysis.
  • n. 33 Lee confirms that the cow at high temperature is ceramized and as a consequence it loses porosity. The study on rats shows that the chemically treated cattle without high temperature maintains its mechanical properties and is an alternative to the autologous.
7. I prefer spontaneous healing of the site in post extractive

Articles 12, 47 and 48

  • n. 12 Clementini; clinical study. The authors, respected and appreciated experts, radiographically estimate the effect of an immediate implantation plus the preservation of the alveolar crest with deproteinized bovine bone and a collagen matrix compared to spontaneous healing, on the vertical and horizontal bone size differences at 4 months. Crest conservation techniques using biomaterial and membrane reduce horizontal morphological changes in bone, especially in the coronal portion of the bone after tooth extraction, compared to spontaneous healing. This is true regardless of whether the immediate insertion of the implant is carried out or not. This confirms that spontaneous healing is not the appropriate treatment. RE-BONE and Shelter may be recommended - to avoid horizontal reabsorption of the crest bone. The author works at the Polyclinic of Tor Vergata and has a chair at the San Raffaele in Milan, active partner Sidp, in 2018 he won the EAO (European Academy Osteointegration) award for the best clinical research in peri-implant biology.
  • n. 47 Sanz; review of clinical and histological results in the use of bone fillers in different oral surgery techniques: preservation of the alveolus, immediate placement of the implant, lateral and vertical bone augmentation. Results say that the use of bovine bone seems suitable for many applications thanks to its osteoconductivity, space creation and slow resorption. The combination of bovine bone and beta tricalcium phosphate also led to similar histological results. Conclusion: The use of bone substitutes is the current standard therapy in the above mentioned techniques. The author is Mariano Sanz, an internationally well-known and very authoritative Spanish professional.
  • n. 48 Sbordone C; Patient study to verify if the contours of the post- extractive site can be maintained with or without immediate grafting of bovine material and membrane. The dimensional loss in sites treated with biomaterial and reabsorbable collagen barrier was lower than that of natural healing sites.
8. On GBR and GTR in general

Articles 15, 29, 40, 41, 56, 57, 58 and 60

  • n. 15 Cuckoos, Pistilli etc. EUROPEAN CONSENSUS MEETING 2016 GUIDELINES FOR GBR. This is the GBR consensus issued in 2016 by a group of well-known Italian clinicians, including doctors Pistilli and Signorini, (with whom Ubgen already collaborates): the report analized the scientific evidence and provided specific guidelines and recommendations for clinical practice and different approaches to GBR techniques to ensure surgical success and predictability of results.
  • n. 29 Jie Liu Kerns; The mechanisms of GBR
  • n. 40 Pellegrini/Rasperini: surgical approaches from the biological point of view, when using the GBR and when the GTR
  • n. 41 Rasperini, new technologies in periodontics guidelines for grafts and surgical techniques
  • n. 56 Shrivat, article on bone regeneration: concepts, definitions and healing criteria
  • n. 57 Stavropoulos; on infrabone defects at 1 and 2 walls in periodontology using bovine bone and bovine pericardial membrane on 30 patients. Over a period of over 3 years, has been observed a significant clinical improvement, with regeneration of cement and periodontal ligament but without bone formation.
  • n. 58 Stavropoulos; on GBR, concepts, definitions and criteria reabsorbable and non-removable membranes
  • n. 60 Zeeshan; on periodontal defects. the article is a review on the membranes and the biomaterials available for GTR, Guided Tissue Regeneration (periodontology)
9. GBR and vertical crest increment

Articles 32 and 47

  • n. 32 Laino: Compares autologous harvesting from the chin and block bovine bone +pericardium Puros/Zimmer to vertically increase atrophic posterior mandibles. Histologies show that there were statistically no substantial differences in the percentage of neoformed bone between the two materials, but the use of heterologous bone is less invasive than the removal from mentonier symphysis.
  • n. 47 Sanz; review of clinical and histological results in the use of bone fillers in different oral surgery techniques: preservation of the alveolus, immediate placement of the implant, lateral and vertical bone augmentation. Results say that using bovine bone seems suitable for many applications thanks to its osteoconductivity, space creation and slow resorption. The combination of bovine bone and beta tricalcium phosphate also led to similar histological results. Conclusion: the use of bone substitutes is the current standard therapy in the above mentioned techniques.
10. GBR and horizontal ridge increment

Articles 36 and 37

  • n. 36 Meloni, prospective study with selection of patients treated for implant placement and bone regeneration using 2 mm of autologous bone and 2 mm of bovine bone in layers covered with collagen membrane. The use of this technique has been successful for the reconstruction of horizontal bone defects.
  • n. 37 Meloni, the study is the follow-up at 3 years of the n. 36, the technique is validated in horizontal bone atrophies.

P.s. UBGEN has a university clinical research protocol with Prof. Meloni.

11. GBR and atrophic maxillary bone defects

Article 51 on RE-BONE

  • n. 51 Scarano on 3 groups of patients was used RE-BONE with platelet concentrate, RE-BONE with blood of the patient, RE-BONE and physiological. 60 samples were analyzed, 20 per group for mechanical tests and histologies. The results show a statistical evidence of deformation resistance in the RE-BONE AND PLATELET CONCENTRATE group of 875%. The RE-BONE and PLATELET CONCENTRATE protocol has been able to increase the mechanical properties of the graft and improve its clinical use in the treatment of bone defects of the maxilla.
12. GBR and posterior mandible atrophic defects and use of APG (platelet concentrate)

Articles 53 and 54

  • n. 53 Scarano; case reports using a RE-BONE block on 1 patient to reconstruct the volume of the alveolar saddle and be able to place an implant. The block was used in combination with Ubgen’s APG (platelet concentrate). The blockage is described as being able to maintain the stability of the clot and conducive to new bone formation. The gained bone volume remained so after the healing period of 6 months and there was no loss in height of the graft. In this type of technique (Interpositional Inlay Bone) the block is not fixed therefore is essential the stability of the graft.
  • n. 54 Scarano; soft tissue study in rats with calcium beta triphosphate from Skin-Hyxa Italfarmacia/Roma and used with APG Ubgen (platelet concentrate) to demonstrate the alternative to hyaluronic acid normally used in oral surgery.
13. GBR and sinus augmentation

Articles 17, 20, 49 and 52

  • n. 17 Danesh, work of metanalysis on the rise of the breast to evaluate the effects on the healing of different grafting materials. All synthetic and animal bone substitutes, the allografts, have proven to be good alternatives to autologous bone and can be used as a viable alternative to the disadvantages of autologous use: morbidity, low availability and poor volume maintenance. However, combining these materials with the autologous does not bring any significant benefits in terms of new bone formation. The article demonstrates the clinical disadvantages of autologous bone; 136 studies out of 791 were considered for the necessary meta-analysis. The author works at NY Univ. Department of Periodontics.
  • n. 20 Fernandez compares two products: Osteobiol/Tecnoss (pig) and Bio-Oss/Geistlich (cattle). They are deproteinized at low and high temperatures respectively and demonstrate how the physical and chemical properties can affect the graft resorption process and the material performance in 60 biopsies performed on 10 patients six months after the maxillary sinus rise. The sintered group at low temperature presented high porosity, low crystallinity, a large surface area and a high rate of resorption compared to the sintered material at high temperature, demonstrating that the physical and chemical properties of a bone substitute affect the resorption. The author links the advantages to the low temperature, the Bio-Oss has shown to have poor general qualities.
  • n. 49 Scarano reports 4 cases on sinus lift with histologies using RE-BONE and shows that the material can be successfully used in breast lift. 6 months are considered an adequate timing to place implants.
  • n. 52 Scarano; new design of the flap for breast lift on a group of 15 patients was opened a classic trapezoidal flap and the test group a new modified triangular flap without anterior release, to see if it reduced pain and swelling in patients. In both groups RE-BONE was used as a filler. The conclusion is that the new type of flap is preferred.

Membranes

1. On various types of periodontal and GBR membranes - absorbable and not - and their clinical applications

Articoli n. 2M, 4M, 5M, 6M, 7M, 10M, 23M, 27M e 30M

  • n. 2M Auer: descrive i nomi commerciali di molte membrane riassorbibili e non e li commenta nell’uso in parodontologia e conclude dicendo che le non riassorbibili hanno lo svantaggio di dover essere rimosse e se esposte si infettano.
  • n. 4M Bottino: lo studio è una review delle membrane in commercio (2013) per GBR e GTR e come usarle.
  • n. 5M Bottino: studio sulle membrane in parodontologia e dopo aver illustrato cos’è la malattia parodontale nelle diverse forme e aver suddiviso le membrane in categorie non riassorbibili e riassorbili, si riporta l’idea di una membrana bioattiva e multistrato, un insieme di proteine naturali e molecole bioattive per trattare meglio la parodontopatia, o anche membrane che rilascino antibiotici.
  • n. 6M Caballero: lo studio riporta le differenze tra pericardio bovino e suino per la produzione di valvole cardiache e conclude che il pericardio di bovino è risultato migliore in termini di elasticità e robustezza del suino, risultato più sottile.
  • n. 7M Caballè-Serrano: lo studio del 2018 prende in considerazione tutta la letteratura pubblicata per rispondere alla domanda Quali criteri deve soddisfare una membrana per la GBR? e conclude che è chiaramente emerso che la biocompatibilità è l’elemento fondamentale al primo posto, seguito dal mantenimento di spazio, occlusività alle cellule, facile maneggevolezza. A pag. 480 c’è una bella illustrazione che riassuntiva.
  • n. 10M Dimitriou: evidenze cliniche sul ruolo delle membrane nei grandi difetti di maxillo-facciale.
  • n. 23M Pellegrini e Rasperini: tanti sono i materiali che vengono proposti per la GTR e la GBR e in questo studio si riportano i nomi e le tecniche chirurgiche con particolar attenzione a rispettare le basi biologiche delle diverse terapie. (A pag. 3 tessuti molli), con istologie a 12 settimane. Si focalizza sul biossido di etilene che non è la soluzione adatta per il cross-linking (p.s. UBGEN non lo usa).
  • n. 27M Rakmatia: escursus del 2012 sulle membrane riassorbibili, eptfe, titanium mesh, benefici e limiti e principi GBR.
  • n. 30M Rothamel: studio per valutare la capacità del collagene di attirare I fibroblasti del legamento parodontale e gli osteoblasti nel collagene di tipo I e III (membrana Ossix, Tutodent, Biomend). Risultati positivi, cioè il collagene ha questa capacità ma nelle cross linkate con gluteraldeide le cellule si attaccano ma non aumentano. (UBGEN non usa gluteraldeide, né formaldeide).
2. What happens if you expose your membrane?

Articolo n. 8M

  • n. 8M Chiang: articolo è del 1978 e tuttora validissimo e spiega la relazione tra fibroblasti e chemotassi. Fibroblasti = cellule del tessuto connettivo, in grado di produrre le componenti della matrice extracellulare). UBGEN definisce “Shelter come membrana capace di attirare i fibroblasti e quindi chemotattica; vale a dire che in caso di esposizione riepitelizza velocemente”; l’articolo dimostra come avvengono i legami biologici.
3. I prefer using non-absorbable membranes...

Articoli n. 9M, 13M e 17M

  • n. 9M Cornaldesi: lo studio dimostra come anche nei difetti infraossei (in questo caso l’estrazione di un molare incluso) le membrane riassorbibili hanno lo stesso risultato delle non.riassorbibili.
  • n. 13M Garcia: revisione sistematica e meta-analisi degli effetti delle membrane esposte e si conclude che sulla base delle rilevazione, l’esposizione della membrana ha effetti nocivi sul risultato di aumento d’osso. Nelle selle edentule i siti senza la membrana esposta hanno avuto un guadagno d’osso del 74% in più rispetto agli altri e nelle deiscenze perimplantari i siti dove la membrana non era esposta hanno avuto una riduzione del difetto del 27%. Lo studio conclude che le membrane non si devono esporre al cavo orale e quelle non riassorbibili reagiscono peggio alla carica batterica.
  • n. 17M Kasaj: scopo dello studio valutare gli effetti biologici di alcune tipologie di membrane in commercio sia riassorbibili che non riassorbili e la loro morfologia al SEM. Lo studio conclude che in GTR (parodontologia) tra le 6 membrane esaminate, quelle riassorbibili si sono dimostrate capaci di stimolare la proliferazione delle cellule. I nomi commerciali a pag.7., che sono: biogide/Geistlich; Tutodent/Zimmer; resodont/resorba; TefGen/Keystone Dental; Cytoplast/Osteogenics; Conform/ACE.
4. Can I use the pericardium on the gingival recessions?

Articolo n. 32M

  • n. 32M Schlee: scopo dell’articolo valutare la capacità del pericardio bovino non cross-linkato nella copertura delle radici su 62 recessioni gengivali. Conclusione: il materiale ha dimostrato di poter coprire con successo le superfici radicolari, di aumentare lo spessore gengivale e l’ampiezza della gengiva cheratinizzata.
5. What is the cross-linking? Explanation and supporting articles

Articoli n. 2M, 3M, 14M e 22M

  • n. 2 Badylack: spiega tutte le componenti strutturali e funzionali di una matrice extracellulare e identifica nel collagene bovino di tipo I probabilmente una tra le più usate componenti in qualsiasi applicazione terapeutica. Spiega il cross-linking per potenziare la rete di fibrille e molto altro. Sono ben oltre 100.000 gli umani che hanno ricevuto una riparazione dei loro tessuti con una matrice extra cellulare di origine animale
  • n. 3M Bai: si è investigato se una membrana di pericardio bovino cross linkata può essere una barriera per la GBR, test in vitro e in vivo su mandibola di conigli. La membrana ha dimostrato caratteristiche ideali per la ricrescita tissutale e il cross linking l’ha resa meccanicamente più stabile a 16 settimane il difetto era stato perfettamente ricostruito nei confronti del controllo lasciato guarire spontaneamente.
  • n. 14M Garcia: scopo dello studio condurre una revisione sistematica per comparare. I risultati clinici tra membrane riassorbibili in collagene cross linkate e non in termini di osso, complicanze post op e modo di degradarsi. I risultati si equivalgono nei risultati clinici
  • n. 22M Oswal: si comparano le caratteristiche meccaniche di pericardio bovino normale e cross-linkato ed il risultato riporta che non ci sono differenze meccaniche evidenti.
6. Safety & versatility of the pericardium

Articoli n. 1M, 15M, 18M, 36M, 40M e 43M

  • n. 1M Athar: riporta in una tabella gli utilizzi in medicina e la sua versatilità.
  • n. 15M Gardin e Bressan: procedure sulla decellularizzazione e delipidazione di osso bovino e pericardio bovino. UBGEN ne ha tenuto conto per la sua produzione.
  • n. 18M Lacker: nuovi metodi di decellularizzazione del pericardio.
  • n. 36M Spinell: dimostra su 5 membrane commerciali che il processo di cross-linking con formaldeidi e gluteraldeidi è citotossico (Bioguide/Geistlich;Biomend/Zimmer;Osseoguard/Biomet); e non c’è proliferazione cellulare; la Ossix/OX Datum è cross linkata con polisaccardi e migliora la proliferazione cellullare; anche Dynamarix/Keyston aumenta la proliferazione. La proliferazione cellulare dipende da come sono prodotte le membrane e può influenzare il processo di rigenerazione ossea.
  • n. 40M Thomaidis: l’articolo confronta 5 tipi di membrane sulla tibia dei conigli su difetti creati chirurgicamente e stabilisce che sia il ptfe, che il pericardio bovino, che quello umano sono adatti alla GBR, no la fascia lata.
  • n. 43M Zouhair: l’autore compara pericardio bovino e suino per capire se ci sono differenze; istologie e scansione al microscopio e i risultati indicano che entrambi sono materiali adatti all’utilizzo mantenendo buone le loro caratteristiche meccaniche, forse il pericardio rimane più idratato, secondo il metodo condotto nello studio e il suino più assotigliato.
7. Horizontal defects with membrane

Articoli n. 19M, 20M, 21M e 38M

  • n. 19M Meloni: studio prospettico con selezione di pazienti trattati per posizionamento implantare e rigenerazione ossea usando 2 mm di osso autologo e 2 mm di osso bovino in strati ricoperti con membrana in collagene. L’uso di questa tecnica ha dato buon esito per la ricostruzione di difetti ossei orizzontali.
  • n. 20M Merli: compara membrane e sostituti ossei nei difetti ossei orizzontali e conclude che non ci sono differenze sostanziali tra il lato test e controllo.
  • n. 21M bis Merli: a tre anni di distanza dopo aver caricato i siti con gli impianti si possono trarre le stesse conclusioni di cui sopra.
  • n. 38M Steigmann: studio clinico su pazienti e dimostra che pericardio e osso bovino sono adatti all’utilizzo nei difetti localizzati di aumento orizzontale della cresta alveolare.
8. Dehiscence

Articoli n. 34M e 42M

  • n. 3M Schwarz: lo studio verifica l’impatto di membrana cross linkata sulla stabilità a lungo termine di 6 anni di difetti peri-implantari. Su 19 deiscenze sono state usate membrane cross linkate e nel controllo collagene normale. A 4mesi si sono verificati i parametri clinici che hanno dimostrato che i valori riportati da entrambe sono simili a 4 e a 6 anni post-op e conclude dicendo che non ci sono particolari benefici delle cross linkate in questi difetti. E’ stato utilizzato bio-oss e membrana bio-gide cross linkata/Geistlich.
  • n. 42M Swati: le membrane di pericardio se comparate al collagene hanno mostrato un effettivo cross linking con tempi di riassorbimento prolungato.
9. On the collagen

Articoli n. 24M, 26M, 29M 33M e 38

  • n. 24M Pintippa: l’articolo rivede il razionale per molte applicazioni e la letteratura corrispondente di studi in vitro e in vivo sul collagene comprese le tecniche di cross linking.
  • n. 26M Postlethweite: come i fibroblasti umani aderiscono al collagene di tipo I, II e III.
  • n. 33M Poornima: versatilità del collagene nel cavo orale.
  • n. 38 Miller: sul collagene e la sua struttura.
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